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我國高頻疲勞試驗機現狀及發展
更新時間:2014-03-19 點擊次數:2303
   高(gao)頻疲(pi)(pi)勞試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)在(zai)各(ge)種(zhong)(zhong)類型(xing)的(de)(de)疲(pi)(pi)勞試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)中,具(ju)有結構簡單,使用(yong)操作方便(bian)、效率高(gao)、耗能(neng)低等特點,所以它(ta)被廣泛地(di)應用(yong)在(zai)航(hang)空、航(hang)天、冶金(jin)、高(gao)等院校(xiao)科研和(he)教學(xue)及工(gong)業(ye)生(sheng)產等各(ge)部門。高(gao)頻疲(pi)(pi)勞試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)可以用(yong)來測(ce)試(shi)(shi)各(ge)種(zhong)(zhong)金(jin)屬材(cai)料和(he)一些(xie)非金(jin)屬材(cai)料抵抗疲(pi)(pi)勞斷(duan)裂性(xing)能(neng),繪制(zhi)疲(pi)(pi)勞壽(shou)命曲線(S-N曲線);配以各(ge)種(zhong)(zhong)夾具(ju),可以用(yong)來測(ce)試(shi)(shi)各(ge)種(zhong)(zhong)零部件的(de)(de)疲(pi)(pi)勞壽(shou)命。目前很多高(gao)等院校(xiao)、科研部門和(he)工(gong)礦企業(ye)的(de)(de)力學(xue)實驗(yan)(yan)室均采用(yong)高(gao)頻疲(pi)(pi)勞試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)進行斷(duan)裂韌(ren)性(xing)試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan),測(ce)試(shi)(shi)金(jin)屬材(cai)料裂紋擴(kuo)展速(su)率及材(cai)料的(de)(de)門坎值。隨(sui)著微電子(zi)技(ji)術(shu)和(he)計算機(ji)技(ji)術(shu)的(de)(de)發展,測(ce)試(shi)(shi)手(shou)段(duan)的(de)(de)完(wan)善,它(ta)的(de)(de)使用(yong)功能(neng)正在(zai)不斷(duan)的(de)(de)擴(kuo)展中。近年來隨(sui)著國內試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)技(ji)術(shu)的(de)(de)發展,人們(men)更加(jia)重視動態試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)過程,作為(wei)動態試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)中的(de)(de)一族,高(gao)頻疲(pi)(pi)勞試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)的(de)(de)需求也(ye)開始(shi)呈(cheng)上升趨勢(shi)。
  高頻疲勞試驗機的國內發(fa)展歷程(cheng)
  高(gao)頻(pin)疲勞(lao)(lao)試(shi)(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)國(guo)外起(qi)步較(jiao)早(zao),瑞(rui)士(shi)Amsler和(he)英國(guo)Instron公(gong)司研發(fa)較(jiao)早(zao)。我(wo)國(guo)高(gao)頻(pin)疲勞(lao)(lao)試(shi)(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)發(fa)展(zhan)是在(zai)(zai)上世紀(ji)60年代開(kai)始的(de)(de),主要(yao)研制廠家(jia)是長(chang)春(chun)試(shi)(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)研究所(suo)和(he)紅(hong)山試(shi)(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)廠兩家(jia)。當時主要(yao)是參(can)考瑞(rui)士(shi)Amsler的(de)(de)應用(yong)技(ji)術,以(yi)Amsler的(de)(de)10HFP422為主要(yao)參(can)照機(ji)(ji)(ji)型(xing)。70年代末隨著(zhu)英國(guo)Instron公(gong)司產(chan)品的(de)(de)引進,特別是1603型(xing)機(ji)(ji)(ji)器,其主機(ji)(ji)(ji)結構及電控(kong)系統在(zai)(zai)當時均(jun)獨樹一幟,所(suo)以(yi)當時國(guo)內(nei)高(gao)頻(pin)疲勞(lao)(lao)試(shi)(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)(zai)發(fa)展(zhan)過(guo)程中又借鑒了許多In??stron的(de)(de)新技(ji)術。目前國(guo)內(nei)高(gao)頻(pin)疲勞(lao)(lao)試(shi)(shi)(shi)驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)(ji)(ji)基本是綜合Amsler和(he)Instron80年代產(chan)品技(ji)術的(de)(de)集成。
  在主機(ji)(ji)結(jie)(jie)構(gou)形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)上(shang)(shang),目(mu)前(qian)(qian)國(guo)內(nei)應(ying)用(yong)(yong)的主機(ji)(ji)機(ji)(ji)型有兩種(zhong)(zhong)類型:一(yi)種(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)借鑒Amsler10HFP422產品結(jie)(jie)構(gou)形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi),采(cai)用(yong)(yong)電磁激(ji)(ji)勵器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)是(shi)上(shang)(shang)激(ji)(ji)勵方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi),其電磁激(ji)(ji)勵器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)、配(pei)(pei)重(zhong)砝碼及預(yu)加載系統等(deng)均安(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)在機(ji)(ji)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)上(shang)(shang)部(bu),這種(zhong)(zhong)方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi)應(ying)用(yong)(yong)較(jiao)(jiao)早(zao),其結(jie)(jie)構(gou)簡(jian)單、各傳遞環(huan)節直(zhi)觀清晰(xi)。缺點是(shi)機(ji)(ji)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)外型較(jiao)(jiao)高、不美觀、氣隙調(diao)節操作和運輸等(deng)都(dou)不是(shi)很方(fang)(fang)便;另外一(yi)種(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)仿Instron主機(ji)(ji)的特點,采(cai)用(yong)(yong)電磁激(ji)(ji)勵器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)下激(ji)(ji)勵方(fang)(fang)式(shi)(shi),其電磁激(ji)(ji)勵器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)、配(pei)(pei)重(zhong)砝碼及預(yu)加載系統等(deng)安(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)在機(ji)(ji)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)底部(bu),整個機(ji)(ji)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的重(zhong)心較(jiao)(jiao)低(di),外型美觀、易于加裝(zhuang)(zhuang)隔音(yin)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置,噪音(yin)相對較(jiao)(jiao)低(di)。目(mu)前(qian)(qian)這兩種(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)型國(guo)內(nei)都(dou)比(bi)較(jiao)(jiao)常見。
  在(zai)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)方面,國(guo)(guo)內(nei)目前應用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)有(you)兩種類(lei)型(xing),我們按(an)作用(yong)在(zai)激(ji)勵器(qi)(qi)(qi)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)信號類(lei)型(xing)即正弦(xian)波幅度(du)(du)激(ji)勵或方波脈寬(kuan)激(ji)勵,把控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)分成(cheng)??線(xian)性(xing)掃(sao)頻幅度(du)(du)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)(xi)統(tong) 和(he)??PWM脈寬(kuan)調(diao)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)型(xing)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)(xi)統(tong) 。早(zao)期以Amsler10HFP422為(wei)代(dai)表的(de)(de)(de)機(ji)器(qi)(qi)(qi),采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)都(dou)是(shi)線(xian)性(xing)掃(sao)頻幅度(du)(du)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)方式,基本(ben)原理是(shi)利用(yong)傳感器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)直接(jie)線(xian)性(xing)反饋(kui)加移相掃(sao)頻原理,由RC組成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)移相掃(sao)頻電路,通(tong)過改(gai)(gai)變R和(he)C的(de)(de)(de)值來(lai)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)起振相位,在(zai)Instron的(de)(de)(de)1603型(xing)機(ji)器(qi)(qi)(qi)引進(jin)之前,國(guo)(guo)內(nei)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)都(dou)是(shi)這種線(xian)性(xing)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。70年代(dai)末,In??stron產(chan)品的(de)(de)(de)引入,它與(yu)Amsler產(chan)品相比,有(you)很(hen)大不(bu)同和(he)改(gai)(gai)進(jin),其控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)(xi)統(tong)采用(yong)了新型(xing)的(de)(de)(de)PWM脈沖調(diao)寬(kuan)型(xing)設計,效果甚(shen)佳,國(guo)(guo)內(nei)經過消(xiao)化吸收,早(zao)已經將該(gai)項(xiang)技術成(cheng)熟(shu)的(de)(de)(de)應用(yong)在(zai)產(chan)品中(zhong)。由于兩種控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)方式各有(you)優勢,所(suo)以目前兩種控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)方式分別應用(yong)在(zai)國(guo)(guo)內(nei)兩個主要研制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)廠家的(de)(de)(de)產(chan)品當(dang)中(zhong)。
  在靜態力值的(de)加載方式上,目前(qian)國(guo)內(nei)大都采用(yong)了伺(si)服(fu)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)進行無級調速,并且由(you)控制系(xi)統(tong)(tong)進行自動跟蹤補償,解決了以往(wang)試(shi)驗過程中由(you)于試(shi)樣的(de)變化,需要人為地(di)不斷進行調整(zheng)的(de)繁瑣過程。另外,國(guo)內(nei)部(bu)分(fen)廠(chang)家還利用(yong)機(ji)器(qi)本身配置的(de)伺(si)服(fu)系(xi)統(tong)(tong),通過增加測量通道和試(shi)驗程序,來實現電子試(shi)驗機(ji)的(de)部(bu)分(fen)功(gong)能,擴(kuo)展了高頻試(shi)驗機(ji)應用(yong)范圍,使其成(cheng)為動靜兩用(yong)機(ji)器(qi)。
  在(zai)(zai)動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)測(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)補(bu)償(chang)修(xiu)(xiu)正技術方(fang)面(mian),國內目前(qian)還沒有(you)將動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)標定列入必須(xu)檢(jian)定范(fan)疇,所以高(gao)(gao)頻(pin)機的(de)(de)校(xiao)驗(yan)工(gong)作(zuo)基本是(shi)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)靜態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)標定方(fang)法。實際(ji)動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)應用(yong)(yong)中傳(chuan)感器和試(shi)(shi)樣(yang)之(zhi)間(jian)是(shi)要(yao)由夾頭連接的(de)(de),隨著(zhu)(zhu)夾具質量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)不同,高(gao)(gao)頻(pin)工(gong)作(zuo)中在(zai)(zai)夾頭和傳(chuan)感器之(zhi)間(jian)由于(yu)慣性力(li)的(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong),在(zai)(zai)傳(chuan)感器上(shang)會疊加(jia)一(yi)個力(li),這(zhe)個力(li)值(zhi)隨著(zhu)(zhu)工(gong)作(zuo)頻(pin)率的(de)(de)提高(gao)(gao)逐(zhu)(zhu)漸增大,而該力(li)值(zhi)并沒有(you)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)到(dao)試(shi)(shi)樣(yang)上(shang),卻作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)到(dao)傳(chuan)感器上(shang),使試(shi)(shi)樣(yang)受(shou)力(li)與傳(chuan)感器測(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)值(zhi)產生一(yi)定的(de)(de)誤差(cha)。這(zhe)就是(shi)我們常說的(de)(de)動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)誤差(cha)。國外在(zai)(zai)這(zhe)方(fang)面(mian)都有(you)一(yi)些補(bu)償(chang)措施,如:采(cai)用(yong)(yong)經(jing)驗(yan)公式進行修(xiu)(xiu)正或采(cai)用(yong)(yong)加(jia)速度傳(chuan)感器測(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)修(xiu)(xiu)正等方(fang)法。隨著(zhu)(zhu)國內動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)試(shi)(shi)驗(yan)標準的(de)(de)逐(zhu)(zhu)漸完善,對動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)測(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)檢(jian)定要(yao)求會很快提到(dao)議程。所以動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)機的(de)(de)動(dong)(dong)態(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)(tai)補(bu)償(chang)修(xiu)(xiu)正技術在(zai)(zai)國內很快會被實際(ji)應用(yong)(yong)。
  隨著(zhu)國內動態試驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)需求的(de)(de)增(zeng)加,給我(wo)(wo)們的(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)頻試驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)發(fa)展(zhan)創造了很好的(de)(de)機(ji)遇。相信(xin)不久的(de)(de)將來(lai),在國內試驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)行業同(tong)仁的(de)(de)共同(tong)努力下(xia),我(wo)(wo)國高(gao)(gao)頻試驗(yan)(yan)機(ji)的(de)(de)技(ji)術(shu)水平一定會有突飛猛進的(de)(de)發(fa)展(zhan)。

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